E. Byeongja Horan - Countering the Ching Invasion at Namhan-san Fortress
King Injo and the political faction of the Westerners engaged in the policy of improving relations with the Ming, which alienated the Later Chin. The Manchus, seriously affronted, launched their first invasion of Joseon and only returned with Joseon’s pledge that it would not engage in hostile actions against the Later Chin(Jeongmyo Horan 1627).
The Later Chin, whose power was growing rapidly, changed its name to ‘Ching’and reinforced its assaults on the Ming. Ching exerted increased pressure on Joseon, demanding that it acknowledge Ching’s suzerainty and that it provided them with commodities necessary in attacking the Ming. When Joseon responded with total rejection, Ching launched another major assault on Joseon(Byeongja Horan 1636). The royal family sought refuge in the Namhan-san Fortress but could not hold the fortress for long. In the end, it complied with the demand of Ching and entered into negotiations with them10). As a consequence, two princes of King Injo, subjects who insisted on war with Ching, and commoners were taken to Ching as hostages. Some in Joseon favored launching a northern expedition to conquer Ching in retaliation, but this was not put into action.