Goryeo believed itself to be the nation of the emperor. It has inherited the cosmopolitan views of Goguryeo and the pride of remaining an independent state which was not dominated by China. The capital of Goryeo was called‘ Hwangdo’, meaning city of the emperor.
The royal family and vassals of merit were given titles of nobility such as duke, marquis and count. Goryeo adopted its own ‘reign name 2)’and the fact that the king dedicated religious rituals to heaven at the Wongudan altar demonstrates that Goryeo was an empire state. The terms used by the royal court were also the same as those used for the emperor of China. However, during the time when Goryeo was forced to surrender to the Mongol aggression and when the Yuan Dynasty intervened in the internal affairs of Goryeo, terms used in the royal court and‘ Myoho’3)(name of the king) were lowered to the status of a subject state.