• History of Korea
  • Ⅳ. The Establishment and Development of the Aristocratic Society of Goryeo
  • 2. The Flourishing Aristocratic Society
  • E. Goryeo Known to the World as‘ Corea’

Following its establishment, Goryeo allowed foreigners to enter the state including those from the Sung, the Khitan, the Jurchen and Japan, and encouraged foreign trade. Byeokrando, an international trade port situated at the mouth of the Yeseong River, served as the gateway to Gaegyeong. Here, merchants from the Sung, southeast Asia and Arabia engaged in trade. Goryeo became known as ‘Corea’by the Arabian merchants who engaged in active trade activities around the world. Byeokrando served as Goryeo’s window to the world.

Silk, herbal medicines, books and tea that the Chinese merchants brought were extremely popular with the aristocrats of Goryeo. Ivory, crystal, amber, spices such as pepper, quicksilver, and carpets brought by the merchants from Islam were also very popular. Goryeo, for its part, exported hemp cloth, ginseng, paper and ink sticks. The paper and ink sticks of Goryeo were of world-class quality.

Cultural Heritage of Korea

Celadons Portraying the Soul of Goryeo Art

Celadon ware of Goryeo was developed using techniques unique to Goryeo that integrated earthenware techniques of Silla, ceramics of Balhae and pottery of Sung China.
Celadon ware were sophisticated products widely used in people’s daily lives during the Goryeo period. Celadon ware were comprised not only of various vessels, but also incense burners, brush holders, rooting tiles, chairs, pillows and decorative tiles. Celadon ware were fashioned in such shapes as melons, bamboos, bamboo shoots, and gourds, combining art with nature. Celadon retains hot or cold temperatures for a long time. The feel of celadon on one’s lips is very soft. Celadon also enhances the flavor and taste of its contents. The custom of drinking tea accelerated the development of celadon ware. It was during the first half of the 12th century, when the aristocratic society thrived, that celadon production technology reached its height. Translucent jade-green pieces unique to Goryeo, as well as celadons with Sang-gam patterns of unique inlaid designs were produced. Sang-gam was a unique manufacturing method of carving patterns on the surface of the pieces, filling the area with clay rather than painting patterns on the surface with a brush. Popular patterns of Sang-gam celadon were clouds, cranes, as well as flowers such as chrysanthemum, apricot trees, peony and lotus. The celadon ware of Korea were world-class art, superior than those of China. In addition to the delicate jade-green celadon usually patronized by the aristocrats, the commoners widely used green celadon.

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Celadon with Sang-gham pattern
Celadon with Sang-gham pattern
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Trade vessels of China
Trade vessels of China
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(following restoration, discovered in the Sea of Sinan in 1976)


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고려
한국사 918 고려 건국 935 신라 멸망 936 후삼국 통일 1019 귀주 대첩 1126 이자겸의 난 1135 묘청의 서경 천도 운동 1170 무신 정변 1231 몽골의 침입 1236 고려 대장경 제작(~1251) 1388 위화도 회군 세계사 960 송의 건국 1192 일본, 가마쿠라 막부 성립 1206 징기즈칸의 몽골 통일 1338 영국과 프랑스의 백년 전쟁(~1453) 1368 원의 멸망과 명의 건국
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단원 요약
고려는 후삼국을 통일하고 발해 유민을 받아들여 한민족 전체를 아우른 통일 국가로 발전하였다. 고려는 불교를 국가의 종교로 숭상하고 유교를 통치의 원리로 삼아 중앙 집권적인 통치 체제를 확립하였다. 고려는 거란, 여진, 몽골 등의 침입을 받아 어려움을 겪었지만 이를 슬기롭게 극복하면서, 고려 대장경, 고려청자와 같은 세계적인 문화 유산을 남겼다. 나아가 개방적인 대외 정책을 통해 고려(코리아)의 이름이 세계에 널리 알려지게 되었다.
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Abstract
Goryeo unified the Later Three Kingdoms, accepted the displaced people of Balhae and united all the people of Korea. Goryeo officially recognized Buddhism as the state religion, while establishing Confucianis as the principle for ruling. Goryeo struggled under invasions from the Khitan, the Jurchen and the Mongols, and wisely overcame these hardships. It left behind such great cultural heritages as the Tripitaka Koreana and Goryeo celadon. Furthermore, through its open foreign policies, it succeeded in making the name Goryeo (Corea) widely known throughout the world.
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