Through the years of the military-led regime, the peasants suffered unspeakable hardships. Those in power deprived the peasants of their land by resorting to all kinds of trickery, and called for the exaction of severe tribute and corvee mobilizations. Many peasants abandoned their homeland for a life of wandering to avoid heavy taxes. The peasants, the lower classes, and slaves, who were treated with contempt by society, engaged in insurrections for over a century to upgrade their social status and class. It was the awakening of the lower classes that enabled the military to seize power by resorting to force and that a person from the slave status could rise to become a high level official.
In Gongju, there was an outbreak of revolt led by two brothers, Mangi and Mangsoi, who seized the Chungcheong province area. Manjeok, who was a slave of Choi Chung-heon, assembled the slaves of the house and called for an uprising with the words:“ Are kings, aristocrats and generals born to these glories? No! For when the time is right, anyone can hold these offices.”In Gyeongsang-do province, peasants Kim Sa-mi and Hyosim rose to become a powerful force. Most of these uprisings, however, ended in failure and the masterminds were executed.