• History of Korea
  • Ⅳ. The Establishment and Development of the Aristocratic Society of Goryeo
  • 3. A Society Ruled by Military Officials
  • D. Peasants and Slaves Seek Freedom from Their Lowly Status

Through the years of the military-led regime, the peasants suffered unspeakable hardships. Those in power deprived the peasants of their land by resorting to all kinds of trickery, and called for the exaction of severe tribute and corvee mobilizations. Many peasants abandoned their homeland for a life of wandering to avoid heavy taxes. The peasants, the lower classes, and slaves, who were treated with contempt by society, engaged in insurrections for over a century to upgrade their social status and class. It was the awakening of the lower classes that enabled the military to seize power by resorting to force and that a person from the slave status could rise to become a high level official.

In Gongju, there was an outbreak of revolt led by two brothers, Mangi and Mangsoi, who seized the Chungcheong province area. Manjeok, who was a slave of Choi Chung-heon, assembled the slaves of the house and called for an uprising with the words:“ Are kings, aristocrats and generals born to these glories? No! For when the time is right, anyone can hold these offices.”In Gyeongsang-do province, peasants Kim Sa-mi and Hyosim rose to become a powerful force. Most of these uprisings, however, ended in failure and the masterminds were executed.

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The uprisings of the peasants and slaves
The uprisings of the peasants and slaves
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고려
한국사 918 고려 건국 935 신라 멸망 936 후삼국 통일 1019 귀주 대첩 1126 이자겸의 난 1135 묘청의 서경 천도 운동 1170 무신 정변 1231 몽골의 침입 1236 고려 대장경 제작(~1251) 1388 위화도 회군 세계사 960 송의 건국 1192 일본, 가마쿠라 막부 성립 1206 징기즈칸의 몽골 통일 1338 영국과 프랑스의 백년 전쟁(~1453) 1368 원의 멸망과 명의 건국
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단원 요약
고려는 후삼국을 통일하고 발해 유민을 받아들여 한민족 전체를 아우른 통일 국가로 발전하였다. 고려는 불교를 국가의 종교로 숭상하고 유교를 통치의 원리로 삼아 중앙 집권적인 통치 체제를 확립하였다. 고려는 거란, 여진, 몽골 등의 침입을 받아 어려움을 겪었지만 이를 슬기롭게 극복하면서, 고려 대장경, 고려청자와 같은 세계적인 문화 유산을 남겼다. 나아가 개방적인 대외 정책을 통해 고려(코리아)의 이름이 세계에 널리 알려지게 되었다.
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Abstract
Goryeo unified the Later Three Kingdoms, accepted the displaced people of Balhae and united all the people of Korea. Goryeo officially recognized Buddhism as the state religion, while establishing Confucianis as the principle for ruling. Goryeo struggled under invasions from the Khitan, the Jurchen and the Mongols, and wisely overcame these hardships. It left behind such great cultural heritages as the Tripitaka Koreana and Goryeo celadon. Furthermore, through its open foreign policies, it succeeded in making the name Goryeo (Corea) widely known throughout the world.
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