• History of Korea
  • Ⅳ. The Establishment and Development of the Aristocratic Society of Goryeo
  • 4. Goryeo Stands against Foreign Aggressions
  • C. Goryeo Becomes Subject to Mongol Dominance for over a Century

Although Goryeo made peace with the Mongols, it was subject to strong Mongol dominance for over a century. The Mongols changed the named of its state to Yuan. Unlike its other conquered regions which it ruled harshly, the Yuan allowed the unique systems and customs of Goryeo to be maintained and exerted influence indirectly through the king of Goryeo. Yuan had to acknowledge that Goryeo was a strong nation with a highly advanced level of culture.

At the demand of the Yuan, however, Goryeo was forced to mobilize for an expedition to Japan. It was also forced to provide war supplies including ships, food, weapons, and military forces. The Yuan also demanded Goryeo to make various tributary payments such as gold, silver, ginseng and falcons. They even demanded women. Under these excessive demands, Goryeo went through the most difficult period of its time. Yuan seized Jeju Island and turned it into a meadow raising horses (Tamna Commandery). Some of the territory in the northern area was also taken by Yuan (Ssangseong Commandery, Dongnyeong Commandery). The crown prince of Goryeo was forced to wed a Yuan princess and the king’s names used the prefix character ‘loyal’(chung) as a means of characterizing thier loyalty to the Yuan. All the terms relating to the king and his actions were downgraded, and various systems of Goryeo were changed. Those who rose to power by supporting the Yuan took hold of much land, turned the peasants into slaves and, engaged in many oppressive acts. The lives of the peasantry became more difficult and the financial state of the country became further pressed.

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The Mongol Culture in the Korean culture

Through their cultural exchanges the Mongol customs gained great popularity among the ruling class of Goryeo, some of which remain to this day. Jokduri, a type of headpiece worn by brides in their weddings, lipsticks, and silver knives, all originated from the Mongols. On the other hand, the customs of Goryeo such as dumplings and rice cakes were passed to the Mongol society and became greatly popular.

A bride in a traditional wedding ceremony
A bride in a traditional wedding ceremony
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단원 들어가기
한국사 918 고려 건국 935 신라 멸망 936 후삼국 통일 1019 귀주 대첩 1126 이자겸의 난 1135 묘청의 서경 천도 운동 1170 무신 정변 1231 몽골의 침입 1236 고려 대장경 제작(~1251) 1388 위화도 회군 세계사 960 송의 건국 1192 일본, 가마쿠라 막부 성립 1206 징기즈칸의 몽골 통일 1338 영국과 프랑스의 백년 전쟁(~1453) 1368 원의 멸망과 명의 건국
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단원 요약
고려는 후삼국을 통일하고 발해 유민을 받아들여 한민족 전체를 아우른 통일 국가로 발전하였다. 고려는 불교를 국가의 종교로 숭상하고 유교를 통치의 원리로 삼아 중앙 집권적인 통치 체제를 확립하였다. 고려는 거란, 여진, 몽골 등의 침입을 받아 어려움을 겪었지만 이를 슬기롭게 극복하면서, 고려 대장경, 고려청자와 같은 세계적인 문화 유산을 남겼다. 나아가 개방적인 대외 정책을 통해 고려(코리아)의 이름이 세계에 널리 알려지게 되었다.
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Goryeo unified the Later Three Kingdoms, accepted the displaced people of Balhae and united all the people of Korea. Goryeo officially recognized Buddhism as the state religion, while establishing Confucianis as the principle for ruling. Goryeo struggled under invasions from the Khitan, the Jurchen and the Mongols, and wisely overcame these hardships. It left behind such great cultural heritages as the Tripitaka Koreana and Goryeo celadon. Furthermore, through its open foreign policies, it succeeded in making the name Goryeo (Corea) widely known throughout the world.
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