• History of Korea
  • Ⅳ. The Establishment and Development of the Aristocratic Society of Goryeo
  • 4. Goryeo Stands against Foreign Aggressions
  • D. King Gongmin Strives to Recover Independence of the State

During the latter half of the 14th century, the power of the Yuan deteriorated and the Ming emerged as the new ruler of China. Rebellious forces of the Chinese Han rose throughout China and spread across the nation. King Gongmin, who came to the throne during this period, formulated strong reformative polices in order to overcome the Yuan domination by taking advantage of the chaotic circumstances in China. King Gongmin got rid of the instruments of the Yuan that intervened in the internal affairs of Goryeo, recovered the territories in Hamgyeong-do province that had been taken by the Yuan, and even went as far as to attack the Liaotung region to regain the ancient territories of Goguryeo. He also reinstated the diverse systems that had been revised under the Yuan and banned the customs of the Mongols. Meanwhile, he ousted all those who traced their power to the Yuan Dynasty. King Gongmin appointed Sin Don, a monk, to carry out these sweeping reform plans. Sin Don returned land that had been illegally seized by the‘ powerful families’(the aristocratic families who had control over power and the economy for a long time) to the peasants who had been the original owners, and freed the slaves of the powerful families, who had originally been peasants. King Gongmin’s reforms, however, were met with strong resistance. There lacked a solid base of support and the opposition from the conservatives was quite intense. Objecting to King Gongmin’s reforms, the members of the powerful families had Sin Don executed on charges of treason and King Gongmin himself met a mysterious death. The reforms pursued by King Gongmin thus ended in failure.

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Samguk Yusa
Samguk Yusa
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Describing Dangun as the founding father of Korea


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고려
한국사 918 고려 건국 935 신라 멸망 936 후삼국 통일 1019 귀주 대첩 1126 이자겸의 난 1135 묘청의 서경 천도 운동 1170 무신 정변 1231 몽골의 침입 1236 고려 대장경 제작(~1251) 1388 위화도 회군 세계사 960 송의 건국 1192 일본, 가마쿠라 막부 성립 1206 징기즈칸의 몽골 통일 1338 영국과 프랑스의 백년 전쟁(~1453) 1368 원의 멸망과 명의 건국
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단원 요약
고려는 후삼국을 통일하고 발해 유민을 받아들여 한민족 전체를 아우른 통일 국가로 발전하였다. 고려는 불교를 국가의 종교로 숭상하고 유교를 통치의 원리로 삼아 중앙 집권적인 통치 체제를 확립하였다. 고려는 거란, 여진, 몽골 등의 침입을 받아 어려움을 겪었지만 이를 슬기롭게 극복하면서, 고려 대장경, 고려청자와 같은 세계적인 문화 유산을 남겼다. 나아가 개방적인 대외 정책을 통해 고려(코리아)의 이름이 세계에 널리 알려지게 되었다.
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Abstract
Goryeo unified the Later Three Kingdoms, accepted the displaced people of Balhae and united all the people of Korea. Goryeo officially recognized Buddhism as the state religion, while establishing Confucianis as the principle for ruling. Goryeo struggled under invasions from the Khitan, the Jurchen and the Mongols, and wisely overcame these hardships. It left behind such great cultural heritages as the Tripitaka Koreana and Goryeo celadon. Furthermore, through its open foreign policies, it succeeded in making the name Goryeo (Corea) widely known throughout the world.
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