• History of Korea
  • Ⅳ. The Establishment and Development of the Aristocratic Society of Goryeo
  • 1. Goryeo Once again Unites the People
  • B. The Formulation of the Framework for the Ruling System

Since the founding of Goryeo, King Taejo (Wang Geon) vigorously pushed forward with the policy of northern expansion in an aspiration to regain the former territories of Goguryeo. He named the state ‘Goryeo’as a means of succeeding Goguryeo. He called Pyongyang, the capital of Goguryeo‘, Seogyeong’ and established the city as the base for his northern expansion policy. King Taejo accepted the powerful local gentry leaders as the central aristocracy while entrusting the lesser castle lords to rule over the countryside.

It was during the reign of King Gwangjong, the fourth monarch of Goryeo, that the nation’s royal authority became firm and the centralized governance system took root. King Gwangjong launched an investigation into those who had been illegally forced into slavery by the local gentry during the chaotic period of the Later Three Kingdoms. Those who had originally been commoners were restored to free status. King Gwangjong adopted the civil service examination of China to appoint men of learning to government posts.

These reforms brought down the foundation of the local gentry and eventually served to strengthen royal authority. The ruling system of the nation was established during the reign of King Seongjong. King Seongjong dispatched officials from the central government to head provincial administrative units that had previously been under the supervision of the local gentry. To control the local gentry, they were incorporated into the ‘Hyangni’(country functionary system). The central political structure was remodeled to fit the circumstances of Goryeo. Efforts were exerted in the education of Confucianism, and ‘Gukjagam’, the national institute of higher learning, was established during this period. The regional administrative unit of Goryeo was largely divided into Gyeonggi1), five provinces called ‘do’, two border regions called gye’, under which were ‘gun’districts and ‘hyeon’counties. However, officials could not be dispatched to all ‘gun’or‘ hyeon’areas. In these areas where officials were not dispatched, functionaries of the region were entrusted with the practical administrative affairs. Also, the ‘so’were established in various parts of the nation, which were in charge of producing various resources needed by the government offices or daily necessities such as gold, silver, metal, porcelain, paper, ink sticks and salt.

The five provinces and two border regions
The five provinces and two border regions
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단원 들어가기
한국사 918 고려 건국 935 신라 멸망 936 후삼국 통일 1019 귀주 대첩 1126 이자겸의 난 1135 묘청의 서경 천도 운동 1170 무신 정변 1231 몽골의 침입 1236 고려 대장경 제작(~1251) 1388 위화도 회군 세계사 960 송의 건국 1192 일본, 가마쿠라 막부 성립 1206 징기즈칸의 몽골 통일 1338 영국과 프랑스의 백년 전쟁(~1453) 1368 원의 멸망과 명의 건국
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단원 요약
고려는 후삼국을 통일하고 발해 유민을 받아들여 한민족 전체를 아우른 통일 국가로 발전하였다. 고려는 불교를 국가의 종교로 숭상하고 유교를 통치의 원리로 삼아 중앙 집권적인 통치 체제를 확립하였다. 고려는 거란, 여진, 몽골 등의 침입을 받아 어려움을 겪었지만 이를 슬기롭게 극복하면서, 고려 대장경, 고려청자와 같은 세계적인 문화 유산을 남겼다. 나아가 개방적인 대외 정책을 통해 고려(코리아)의 이름이 세계에 널리 알려지게 되었다.
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Goryeo unified the Later Three Kingdoms, accepted the displaced people of Balhae and united all the people of Korea. Goryeo officially recognized Buddhism as the state religion, while establishing Confucianis as the principle for ruling. Goryeo struggled under invasions from the Khitan, the Jurchen and the Mongols, and wisely overcame these hardships. It left behind such great cultural heritages as the Tripitaka Koreana and Goryeo celadon. Furthermore, through its open foreign policies, it succeeded in making the name Goryeo (Corea) widely known throughout the world.
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