• History of Korea
  • Ⅳ. The Establishment and Development of the Aristocratic Society of Goryeo
  • 2. The Flourishing Aristocratic Society
  • B. Goryeo Beset Once Again by the Jurchen Invasion

About the time when the power of Khitan was deteriorating in Manchuria, Goryeo was once again troubled by the Jurchen. Goryeo sent an expedition but failed. Goryeo found that it was difficult to counter the mounted Jurchen with its foot soldiers alone. It was for this reason that Yun Gwan created a new military organization called Extraordinary Military Corps (Byeolmuban), which drove back the Jurchen to the north of the great wall of a thousand li, and built the so-called Nine Forts in the northeastern region. However, upon appeals from the Jurchen, Goryeo returned the region of the Nine forts to the Jurchen after it vowed never to invade Goryeo and to present offerings to Goryeo every year.

The Jurchen, which had become more powerful than ever before, founded a state called chin and claimed itself an empire. Through an alliance with Sung China, chin overcame the Khitan and eventually drove the sung down to the south. the chin put increased pressure on Goryeo as well, and demanded that Goryeo enter into a suzerainty relationship. Yi Ja-Gyeon, in power at the time, judged that peaceful relations with Chin would contribute to maintaining his own political dominance, and so he assented to Chin' s demands. As a result, Goryeo was able to maintain peaceful relations in the international arena. The northern expansion policy that had been promoted since the establishment of Goryeo, however, was temporarily suspended.

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The painting, ‘Cheokgyeongipbido’(painted during the latter Joseon period)
The painting, ‘Cheokgyeongipbido’(painted during the latter Joseon period)
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The monument marking the borders built by Yoon Gwan


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고려
한국사 918 고려 건국 935 신라 멸망 936 후삼국 통일 1019 귀주 대첩 1126 이자겸의 난 1135 묘청의 서경 천도 운동 1170 무신 정변 1231 몽골의 침입 1236 고려 대장경 제작(~1251) 1388 위화도 회군 세계사 960 송의 건국 1192 일본, 가마쿠라 막부 성립 1206 징기즈칸의 몽골 통일 1338 영국과 프랑스의 백년 전쟁(~1453) 1368 원의 멸망과 명의 건국
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단원 요약
고려는 후삼국을 통일하고 발해 유민을 받아들여 한민족 전체를 아우른 통일 국가로 발전하였다. 고려는 불교를 국가의 종교로 숭상하고 유교를 통치의 원리로 삼아 중앙 집권적인 통치 체제를 확립하였다. 고려는 거란, 여진, 몽골 등의 침입을 받아 어려움을 겪었지만 이를 슬기롭게 극복하면서, 고려 대장경, 고려청자와 같은 세계적인 문화 유산을 남겼다. 나아가 개방적인 대외 정책을 통해 고려(코리아)의 이름이 세계에 널리 알려지게 되었다.
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Abstract
Goryeo unified the Later Three Kingdoms, accepted the displaced people of Balhae and united all the people of Korea. Goryeo officially recognized Buddhism as the state religion, while establishing Confucianis as the principle for ruling. Goryeo struggled under invasions from the Khitan, the Jurchen and the Mongols, and wisely overcame these hardships. It left behind such great cultural heritages as the Tripitaka Koreana and Goryeo celadon. Furthermore, through its open foreign policies, it succeeded in making the name Goryeo (Corea) widely known throughout the world.
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책목차 글자확대 글자축소 이전페이지 다음페이지 페이지상단이동 오류신고