• History of Korea
  • Ⅳ. The Establishment and Development of the Aristocratic Society of Goryeo
  • 3. A Society Ruled by Military Officials
  • B. The Nation Can Survive Only When Its Capital Is Moved to Seogyeong

The society of Goryeo, at this point, was filled with trepidation, as the Yi Ja-gyeom incident led to the deaths of many and the royal palace was a burnt ruin. Externally, it was also facing pressure from the Jurchen Chin. At this juncture, the monk Myochong and Chung Ji-sang urged that the capital be moved to Seogyeong. Quoting the theories of geomancy, they argued that the virtue of the Gaeseong topography was depleted, and was the cause of chaos in the state. They asserted that moving the capital to Seogyeong would reinvigorate the dynasty, that the Chin would voluntarily abandon their aims for Goryeo and the many nations surrounding Goryeo would become their subjects. They also proposed that the king of Goryeo be declared an emperor and that the king should adopt the name of his own reign.

People of the time believed in the theories of geomancy, which meant that the destiny of an individual or a state is determined by the topography on which the house or the royal palace is built. Seogyeong had long been recognized as a place full of vigor. In accordance with these theories, King Injong sought to move the capital and build a royal palace in Seogyeong, but this plan was suspended following mounting opposition. As a result, Myochong and his supporters built a new state in Seogyeong and confronted the Goryeo state, which within one year fell to the government forces led by Kim Bu-sik, a faction from Gaegyeong.

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‘Samguk Sagi’, the Historical Record of the Three Nations, Were Compiled to Provide Accurate Views on the Korean History

Samguk Sagi, which is a historical record of the Three Kingdoms, is the oldest history book of Korea in existence today. It was compiled by Kim Bu-shik under orders from the king. Kim Bu-shik (1075~1151) lived in an era when society was in chaos from the Yi Ja-gyeom revolt, Myochong’s campaign to move the capital to Seogyeong, and Goryeo’s surrender to the Jurchen aggression. As the society became chaotic, King Injong and Kim Bu-shik, the highest ranking officials at the time, felt the need to restore the honor of the nation and restructure its ruling order. And thus came the compilation of the Samguk Sagi. The intellectuals of Goryeo at the time were ignorant of Korean history whereas they were knowledgeable on the history of China. Kim Bu-shik thus began to summarize the history of Korea throughout the Three Kingdoms period based on his historic views originating from Confucianism. While documenting the politics, wars and diplomacy of the Three Kingdoms, the book emphasized the Confucian virtues.

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Samguk Sagi
Samguk Sagi
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고려
한국사 918 고려 건국 935 신라 멸망 936 후삼국 통일 1019 귀주 대첩 1126 이자겸의 난 1135 묘청의 서경 천도 운동 1170 무신 정변 1231 몽골의 침입 1236 고려 대장경 제작(~1251) 1388 위화도 회군 세계사 960 송의 건국 1192 일본, 가마쿠라 막부 성립 1206 징기즈칸의 몽골 통일 1338 영국과 프랑스의 백년 전쟁(~1453) 1368 원의 멸망과 명의 건국
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단원 요약
고려는 후삼국을 통일하고 발해 유민을 받아들여 한민족 전체를 아우른 통일 국가로 발전하였다. 고려는 불교를 국가의 종교로 숭상하고 유교를 통치의 원리로 삼아 중앙 집권적인 통치 체제를 확립하였다. 고려는 거란, 여진, 몽골 등의 침입을 받아 어려움을 겪었지만 이를 슬기롭게 극복하면서, 고려 대장경, 고려청자와 같은 세계적인 문화 유산을 남겼다. 나아가 개방적인 대외 정책을 통해 고려(코리아)의 이름이 세계에 널리 알려지게 되었다.
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Abstract
Goryeo unified the Later Three Kingdoms, accepted the displaced people of Balhae and united all the people of Korea. Goryeo officially recognized Buddhism as the state religion, while establishing Confucianis as the principle for ruling. Goryeo struggled under invasions from the Khitan, the Jurchen and the Mongols, and wisely overcame these hardships. It left behind such great cultural heritages as the Tripitaka Koreana and Goryeo celadon. Furthermore, through its open foreign policies, it succeeded in making the name Goryeo (Corea) widely known throughout the world.
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